Speech disorders affect the pronunciation of sounds.
For example, a child may have good vocabulary and understanding of language, but when he or she talks, it is difficult to understand what he or she is saying.
An articulation disorder is when someone does not say specific sounds correctly. He or she may substitute a sound for another sound (Say /w/ instead of /r/), make a distortion of a sound, or not say a sound at all.
Of course, some errors are normal. A 3 year old will not say /r/ correctly since it is a later developing sounds. However, a 3 year old should be able to say /m/ and /b/.
To review which sounds a child should have mastered by a certain age, please refer to this chart: Articulation Chart.
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a motor speech sound disorder. A child with CAS has difficulty planning and saying certain speech sounds.
The “motor planning” part of the brain is not communicating correctly with the lips and tongues. The child may have difficultly saying sounds accurately or even initiating speech.
Fluency disorders or stuttering is not really a speech disorder but since most people consider it to be...I put it here! I thought you might find the answers you need.
Fluency is how "fluid" a person can talk or read. A child who has trouble with fluency or stutters may have one or more of the following:
Almost everybody will stutter at one point or another in their life and that is NORMAL. When stuttering starts to impact communication, it becomes a disorder.
Who is at risk?
Will my child outgrow it?
Most children who stutter before the age of 3 will outgrow it before the age of 4 without any intervention.
How to help your child today?
Speech therapy can be quite helpful for treating stuttering. Each therapy program will be individualized to each child depending on his/her stuttering behavior and secondary physical behaviors (if there are any!).
Some examples are:
A speech sound disorder is quite common from ages 3-8 years old. The cause is not always known but some risk factors include:
Some children need help learning how to say certain sounds even if they don't have any of the risk factors listed above.
They don't outgrow it.
Speech therapy is HIGHLY recommended since speech sound disorders can put a child at risk for:
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